Tourism And Travel
Sometimes Tourism and Travel are used interchangeably. In this context travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. There has been a discernable upmarket trend in tourism over the last few decades. Tourists have higher levels of disposable income and greater leisure time. They are also better educated and have more sophisticated tastes. There is now a demand for a better quality product in many quarters.
The word hotel derives from the French hotel (coming from "hote" meaning "guest"), which referred to a French version of a townhouse or any other building seeing frequent visitors, not a place offering accommodation (in contemporary usage, hotel has the meaning of "hotel", and hotel particulier is used for the old meaning). The French spelling (with the circumflex) was once also used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the 's' once preceding the 't' in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time received a new, but closely related meaning.
Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as a restaurant, a swimming pool or childcare. Some hotels have conference services and meeting rooms and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location. In Australia or Canada, the word may also refer to a pub or bar. In India, the word may also refer to a restaurant since the best restaurants were always situated next to a good hotel.
Entering dictionaries after World War II, the word motel (blend of "motor" and "hotel" or "motorists' hotel") referred initially to a single building of connected rooms whose doors face a parking lot and/or common area or a series of small cabins with common parking. Their creation was driven by increased driving distances on the United States highway system that allowed easy cross-country travel.
Relaxing on a cruise ship provides an escape from reality unlike any other vacation. While cruises often may seem like large, extravagant vacations, it is very possible to find a good deal without too much legwork. Casinos, spas and full-service bars are just the beginning. Any cruise you take will more than likely offer music, dancing and other great nightlife, not to mention oodles of shopping and plenty of workshops and seminars. Competitions for real prizes may inspire you to bear your hairy chest or pull off another wild and crazy stunt. A gym or fitness center directly on the boat gives athletes and exercise fanatics no excuse for passing up a cruise.
When planning a cruise, the first thing you'll want to consider -. besides destination and duration -. is your budget. You want to ensure that you have enough funding set aside to enjoy your trip to the fullest without foregoing special extras that you might otherwise miss. Even an all-inclusive cruise may still have some limitations. For example, many extras like your bar drinks, casino capital, beauty salon and spa treatments, tours, photographs and gift shop purchases are considered additional, above and beyond the scope of an all-inclusive package. The balance for these expenditures is generally tacked onto your tab, which goes against your credit card in most cases.
In 1903, the Wright brothers' first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina marked the beginning of the aviation industry. In the early years, the public did not embrace airplane travel as an option, thinking that it was too dangerous. The first major stimulus that helped to develop the industry was the United States' participation in World War I. After the war, though, the government stopped funding research and development, practically stagnating growth in the aviation industry. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean and created massive interest in flying with the general public.
After this, a variety of air transport holding companies began, including Aviation Corporation. The air transport division of the company was called American Airways and later grew to become American Airlines, one of the largest commercial carriers in the United States. In 1928, what was to become another leading air transport company was created as a holding company by Boeing and its air transport division, United Aircraft and Transportation Corporation. In 1931 the four air transport divisions of United Aircraft became United Airlines.
One of the biggest factors in the growth of the air transportation industry during this time was the development of a mail transport system by the U.S. Postal Service. The Kelly Airmail Act of 1925 provided private airlines the opportunity to function as mail carriers through involvement in a competitive bidding system. These private carriers, through the airmail revenue, could then expand into carrying other forms of cargo, including passengers. Charles Lindbergh, in the position of "technical adviser" to Pan Am World Airways, piloted that airline's first airmail service flight to South America in 1929.
Passengers were targeted as a way to augment the income of the airmail systems. Slow starting, due to the perception of less than stellar safety performance and high fare costs, passenger volume grew tremendously and carriers multiplied. The Air Commerce Act, passed in 1926, allowed Federal regulation of air traffic rules. The aviation industry backed the passage of this act, believing that without the government's action to improve safety the commercial potential of the airplane would not be realized. Air traffic became more and more disorganized and the need for regulation became apparent. The postmaster general took control over the industry for a short time by limiting the number of carriers that were granted mail transport contracts. This practice was ruled anti-competitive and the industry was again opened up to competitive bidding for mail contracts. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Authority, an independent regulatory bureau, was developed. That same year, many air transport companies were flying the new DC-3s. These planes, created to carry both mail and passengers, were wide enough to seat 21 people. The design of the DC-3 also allowed for 14 seats and three berths - for sleeping on long flights. Famous child actress Shirley Temple was the first to purchase a sleeping berth ticket on an American Airlines DC-3.
With United States' entry into World War II, commercial fleets and pilots were sent to Europe to participate in the war effort. The war also helped to generate support for research and development of aircraft, which extended beyond the war to commercial aviation. A major post-war development was the four-engine aircraft, such as the Lockheed Constellation. This innovation substantially cut the flying time for ocean and continent crossings, and thus negatively effecting travel by ocean liner and train. The 1950s saw dramatic improvements in the capacity and comfort of commercial flights. Planes were modernized, and jet service was introduced in 1959, enabling even faster cross-country service.
After major in-air collisions in the 1950s, the Federal Aviation Act was passed in 1958. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was created, and was charged to develop an air traffic control system. The 1970s saw dramatic increases in costs, particularly increases in fuel prices. The 1980s were marked by the deregulation of the industry, which resulted in the growth of smaller carriers and the mergers of larger carriers. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the number of passengers, including first time passengers, as prices were cut and the cities served by airlines increased.Bankruptcies, mergers, and acquisitions of many railroad companies occurred during the second half of the 20th century, due to a decrease in passenger travel and freight and mail service. By 1970, airlines carried 73% of passenger travel. Railroads carried a scant 7.2%. A national rail passenger system - Amtrak - was created in 1971. Seen as a way of providing some balance to transportation options and with a view to reducing automobile traffic congestion. Amtrak's image rose during the oil embargo of the mid-1970s, but the increase in ridership was not maintained. The government- run agency has not appeared to be the answer for revitalizing the passenger train industry. Research and development of high-speed trains, especially for the northeast commuter corridors, is progressing. Overloading of highways and airlines at the end of the 20th century is providing increased incentive for further expansion of passenger train service.
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